Monday, October 21, 2013

vedanta-hinduism part 1

Athato Brahmajijnasa I.1.1 (1)
Now, therefore, the enquiry into Brahman.
Atha: now, then, afterwards; Atah: therefore; Brahmajijnasa: a
desire for the knowledge of Brahman (the enquiry into the real nature
of Brahman).
Janmadyasya yatah I.1.2 (2)
(Brahman is that) from which the origin etc., (i.e. the origin,
sustenance and dissolution) of this (world proceed).
Janmadi: origin etc.; Asya: of this (world); Yatah: from which.
Sastrayonitvat I.1.3 (3)
The scripture being the source of right knowledge.
Sastra: the scripture; Yonitvat: being the source of or the means of
the right knowledge.
Tattu Samanvayat I.1.4 (4)
But that (Brahman is to be known only from the Scriptures
and not independently by any other means is established),
because it is the main purpose (of all Vedantic texts).
Tat: that; Tu: but; Samanvayat: on account of agreement or
harmony, because it is the main purpose.
Ikshaternasabdam I.1.5 (5)
On account of seeing (i.e. thinking being attributed in the
Upanishads to the First Cause, the Pradhana) is not (the first
cause indicated by the Upanishads; for) it (Pradhana) is not
based on the scriptures.
Ikshateh: on account of seeing (thinking); Na: is not; Asabdam: not
based on the scriptures.
Gaunaschet na Atmasabdat I.1.6 (6)
If it be said that (the word ‘seeing’ or thinking) is used in a
secondary sense, (we say) not so, because of the word Atman
being applied to the cause of the world.

Gaunah: indirect, secondary, figurative; Chet: if; Na: not;
Atmasabdat: because of the word Atman, i.e., soul.
Tannishthasya mokshopadesat I.1.7 (7)
(The Pradhana cannot be designated by the term Self) because
Salvation is declared to one who is devoted to that Sat.
Tat: to that; Nishthasya: of the devoted; Mokshopadesat: from the
statement of salvation.
Heyatvavachanaccha I.1.8 (8)
And (the Pradhana cannot be denoted by the word ‘Self’),
because it is not stated (by the scriptures) that It (Sat) has to be
Heyatva: fitness to be discarded; Avachanat: not being stated (by
the scriptures); Cha: and.
Svapyayat I.1.9 (9)
On account of (the individual) merging in its own Self (the Self
cannot be the Pradhana).
Svapyayat: on account of merging in one’s own self.
Gatisamanyat I.1.10 (10)
On account of the uniformity of view (of the Vedanta texts,
Brahman is to be taken as that cause).
Gati: view; Samanyat: on account of the uniformity.
Srutatvaccha I.1.11 (11)
And because it is directly stated in the Sruti (therefore the
all-knowing Brahman alone is the cause of the universe).
Srutatvat: being declared by the Sruti; Cha: also, and.
Anandamayo’bhyasat I.1.12 (12)
Anandamaya means Para Brahman on account of the
repetition (of the word ‘bliss’ as denoting the Highest Self).
Anandamayah: full of bliss; Abhyasat: because of repetition.
Vikarasabdanneti chet na prachuryat I.1.13 (13)
If (it be objected that the term Anandamaya consisting of bliss
can) not (denote the Supreme Self) because of its being a word
denoting a modification or transformation or product (we say
that the objection is) not (valid) on account of abundance,
(which is denoted by the suffix ‘maya’).
Vikara sabdat: from the word ‘Anandamaya’ with the suffix ‘mayat’
denoting modification; Na: is not; Iti: this; thus; Chet: if; Na: not so;
Prachuryat: because of abundance.
Taddhetuvyapadesaccha I.1.14. (14)
And because he is declared to be the cause of it (i.e. of bliss;
therefore ‘maya’ denotes abundance or fulness).
Tad + Hetu: the cause of that, namely the cause of Ananda;
Vyapadesat: because of the statement of declaration; Cha: and.
Mantravarnikameva cha giyate I.1.15 (15)
Moreover that very Brahman which has been re-referred to in
the Mantra portion is sung (i.e. proclaimed in the Brahmana
passage as the Anandamaya).
Mantra-varnikam: He who is described in the Mantra portion; Eva:
the very same; Cha: and also, moreover; Giyate: is sung.
Netaro’nupapatteh I.1.16 (16)
(Brahman and) not the other (i.e. the individual soul is meant
here) on account of the impossibility (of the latter assumption).
Na: not; Itarah: the other, i.e., the Jiva; Anupapatteh: because of the
impossibility, non-reasonableness.
Bhedavyapadesaccha I.1.17 (17)
And on account of the declaration of the difference (between
the two i.e. the one referred to in the passage ‘The Self
consisting of bliss’ etc. and the individual soul, the latter
cannot be the one referred to in the passage).
Bheda: difference; Vyapadesat: because of the declaration; Cha:
Kamaccha Nanumanapeksha I.1.18 (18)
Because of wishing or willing in the scriptural passage we
cannot say even inferentially that Anandamaya means
Kamat: because of desire or willing; Cha: and; Na: not; Anumana:
the inferred one, i. e., the Pradhana; Apeksha: necessity.
Asminnasya cha tadyogam sasti I.1.19 (19)
And moreover it, i e., the scripture, teaches the joining of this,
i.e., the individual soul, with that, i.e., consisting of bliss
(Anandamaya) when knowledge is attained.
Asmin: in him; in the person called Anandamaya; Asya: his, of the
Jiva; Cha: and, also; Tat: that; Yogam: union; Sasti: (Sruti) teaches.
Antastaddharmopadesat I.1.20 (20)
The being within (the Sun and the eye) is Brahman, because
His attributes are taught therein.
Antah: (Antaratma, the being within the sun and the eye); Tat
Dharma: His essential attribute; Upadesat: because of the teaching,
as Sruti teaches.
Bhedavyapadesacchanyah I.1.21 (21)
And there is another one (i.e. the Lord who is different from the
individual souls animating the Sun etc.) on account of the
declaration of distinction.
Bheda: difference; Vyapadesat: because of declaration; Cha: and,
also; Anyah: is different, another, other than the Jiva or the individual
Akasastallingat I.1.22 (22)
The word Akasa i.e., ether here is Brahman on account of
characteristic marks (of that i.e. Brahman being mentioned).
Akasah: the word Akasa as used here; Tad: His, of Brahman;
Lingat: because of characteristic mark.
Ata eva Pranah I.1.23 (23)
For the same reason the breath also refers to Brahman.
Ata eva: for the same reason; Pranah: the breath (also refers to
Jyotischaranabhidhanat I.1.24 (24)
The ‘light’ is Brahman, on account of the mention of feet in a
passage which is connected with the passage about the light.
Jyotih: the light; Charana: feet; Abhidhanat: because of the
Chhando’bhidhananneti chet na tatha
cheto’rpananigadat tatha hi darsanam I.1.25 (25)
If it be said that Brahman is not denoted on account of the
metre Gayatri being denoted, we reply not so, because thus i.e.
by means of the metre the application of the mind on Brahman
is declared; because thus it is seen (in other passages also).
Chhandas: the metre known as Gayatri; Abhidhanat: because of
the description; Na: not; Iti: thus; Chet: if; Na: not; Tatha: thus, like
that; Chet’orpana: application of the mind; Nigadat: because of the
teaching; Tatha hi: like that; Darsanam: it is seen (in other texts).
Bhutadipadavyapadesopapatteschaivam I.1.26 (26)
And thus also (we must conclude, viz., that Brahman is the
subject or topic of the previous passage, where Gayatri occurs)
because (thus only) the declaration as to the beings etc. being
the feet is possible.
Bhutadi: the elements etc. i.e. the elements, the earth, the body and
the heart; Pada: (of) foot, part; Vyapadesa: (of) mention (of)
declaration or expression; Upapatteh: because of the possibility or
proof, reasonableness, as it is rightly deduced from the above
reasons; Cha: also; Evam: thus, so.
Upadesabhedanneti chet na ubhayasminnapyavirodhat I.1.27 (27)
If it be said (that Brahman of the Gayatri passage cannot be
recognised in the passage treating of ‘light’) on account of the
difference of designation or the specification (we reply) no,
because in either (designation) there is nothing contrary (to the
Upadesa: of teaching of grammatical construction or cases; Bhedat:
because of the difference; Na: not; Iti chet: if it be said; Na: no;
Ubhayasmin: in both, (whether in the ablative case or in the locative
case); Api: even; Avirodhat: because there is no contradiction.
Pranastathanugamat I.1.28 (28)
Prana is Brahman, that being so understood from a connected
consideration (of the passage referring to Prana).
Pranah: the breath or life-energy; Tatha: thus, so, likewise like that
stated before; like that stated in the Sruti quoted before in connection
therewith; Anugamat: because of being understood (from the texts).
Na vakturatmopadesaditi chet
adhyatmasambandhabhuma hyasmin I.1.29 (29)
If it be said that (Brahman is) not (denoted or referred in these
passages on account of) the speaker’s instruction about
himself, we reply not so, because there is abundance of
reference to the Inner Self in this (chapter or Upanishad).
Na: not; Vaktuh: of the speaker (Indra); Atma: of the Self; Upadesat:
on account of instruction; Iti: thus; Chet: if; Adhyatma sambandha
bhuma: abundance of reference to the Inner Self; Hi: because;
Asmin: in this (chapter or Upanishad).
Sastradrishtya tupadeso vamadevavat 1.1.30 (30)
The declaration (made by Indra about himself, viz., that he is
and with Brahman) is possible through intuition as attested by
Sruti, as in the case of Vamadeva.
Sastradrishtya: through insight based on scripture or as attested by
Sruti; Tu: but; Upadesah: instruction; Vamadevavat: like that of
Jivamukhyapranalinganneti chet na upasatraividhyat
asritatvadiha tadyogat I.1.31 (31)
If it be said that (Brahman is) not (meant) on account of
characteristic marks of the individual soul and the chief vital
air (being mentioned); we say no, because (such an
interpretation) would enjoin threefold meditation (Upasana),
because Prana has been accepted (elsewhere in the Sruti in
the sense of Brahman) and because here also (words denoting
Brahman) are mentioned with reference to Prana.
Jivamukhyapranalingat: on account of the characteristic marks of
the individual soul and the chief vital air; Na: not; Iti: thus; Chet: if; Na:
not; Upasana: worship, meditation; Traividhyat: because of the
three ways; Asritatvat: on account of Prana being accepted
(elsewhere in Sruti in the sense of Brahman); Iha: in the Kaushitaki
passage; Tadyogat: because of its appropriateness; as they have
been applied; because words denoting Brahman are mentioned with
reference to Prana.
Sarvatra prasiddhopadesat I.2.1 (32)
(That which consists of the mind ‘Manomaya’ is Brahman)
because there is taught (in this text) (that Brahman which is)
well-known (as the cause of the world) in the Upanishads.
Sarvatra: everywhere, in every Vedantic passage i.e., in all
Upanishads; Prasiddha: the well-known; Upadesat: because of the


part 2

Vivakshitagunopapattescha I.2.2 (33)
Moreover the qualities desired to be expressed are possible (in
Brahman; therefore the passage refers to Brahman).
Vivakshita: desired to be expressed; Guna: qualities; Upapatteh:
because of the reasonableness, for the justification; Cha: and,
Anupapattestu na saarirah I.2.3 (34)
On the other hand, as (those qualities) are not possible (in it)
the embodied (soul is) not (denoted by Manomaya etc.).

Anupapatteh: not being justifiable, because of the impossibility,
because of the unreasonableness, because they are not appropriate;
Tu: but on the other hand; Na: not; Saarirah: the embodied, the Jiva
or the individual soul.
Karmakartrivyapadesaccha I.2.4 (35)
Because of the declaration of the attainer and the object
attained. He who consists of the mind (Manomaya) refers to
Brahman and not to the individual soul.
Karma: object; Kartri: agent; Vyapadesat: because of the
declaration or mention; Cha: and.
Sabdaviseshat I.2.5 (36)
Because of the difference of words.
Sabda: word; Viseshat: because of difference.
Smritescha I.2.6 (37)
From the Smriti also (we know the embodied self or the
individual soul is different from the one referred to in the text
under discussion).
Smriteh: from the Smriti; Cha: and, also.
Arbhakaukastvattadvyapadesaccha neti chet na
nichayyatvadevam vyomavaccha I.2.7 (38)
If it be said that (the passage does) not (refer to Brahman) on
account of the smallness of the abode (mentioned i.e. the
heart) and also on account of the denotation of that (i.e. of
minuteness) we say, No; because (Brahman) has thus to be
meditated and because the case is similar to that of ether.
Arbhakaukastvat: because of the smallness of the abode;
Tadvyapadesat: because of the description or denotation as such
i.e. minuteness; Cha: and also; Na: not; Iti: not so; Chet: if; Na: not;
Nichayyatvat: because of meditation (in the heart); Evam: thus, so;
Vyomavat: like the ether; Cha: and.
Sambhogapraptiriti chet na vaiseshyat I.2.8 (39)
If it be said that (being connected with the hearts of all
individual souls to) Its (Brahman’s) Omnipresence, it would
also have experience (of pleasure and pain) (we say) not so, on
account of the difference in the nature (of the two).
Sambhogaprapti: that it has experience of pleasure and pain; Iti:
thus; Chet: if; Na: not; Vaiseshyat: because of the difference in
Atta characharagrahanat I.2.9 (40)
The Eater (is Brahman), because both the movable and
immovable (i.e. the whole world) is taken (as His food).
Atta: the Eater; Characharagrahanat: because the movable and
immovable (i.e. the whole universe) is taken (as His food).
Prakaranaccha I.2.10 (41)
And on account of the context also the (eater is Brahman).
Prakaranat: from the context; Cha: also, and.
Guham pravistavatmanau hi taddarsanat I.2.11 (42)

The two who have entered into the cavity (of the heart) are
indeed the individual soul and the Supreme Soul, because it is
so seen.
Guham: in the cavity (of the heart) Pravishtau: the two who have
entered; Atmanau: are the two selfs (individual soul and the
Supreme Soul); Hi: indeed, because; Taddarsanat: because it is so
Viseshanaccha I.2.12 (43)
And on account of the distinctive qualities (of the two
mentioned in subsequent texts).
Viseshanat: on account of distinctive qualities; Cha: and.
Antara upapatteh I.2.13 (44)

The person within (the eye) (is Brahman) on account of (the
attributes mentioned therein) being appropriate (only to
Antara: inside (the eye), the being within the eye; Upapatteh: on
account of the appropriateness of (attributes).
Sthanadivyapadesaccha I.2.14 (46)
And on account of the statement of place and so on.
Sthanadi: the place and the rest; Vyapadesat: on account of the
statement; Cha: and.
Sukhavisishtabhidhanadeva cha I.2.15 (46)
And on account of the passage referring to that which is
distinguished by bliss (i.e. Brahman).
Sukha: bliss; Visishta: qualified by; Abhidhanat: because of the
description; Eva: alone; Cha: and.
Srutopanishatkagatyabhidhanaccha I.2.16 (47)
And on account of the statement of the way of him who has
known the Truth of the Upanishads.
Sruto: heard; Upanishatka: Upanishads; Gati: way; Abhidhanat:
because of the statement; Cha: and.
Anavasthiterasambhavaccha netarah I.2.17 (48)
(The person within the eye is the Supreme Self) and not any
other (i.e. the individual soul etc.) as these do not exist always;
and on account of the impossibility (of the qualities of the
person in the being ascribed to any of these).
Anavasthiteh: not existing always; Asambhavat: on account of the
impossibility; Cha: and; Na: not; Itarah: any other.
Antaryamyadhidaivadishu taddharmavyapadesat I.2.18 (49)
The internal ruler over the gods and so on (is Brahman)
because the attributes of that (Brahman) are mentioned.
Antaryami: the ruler within; Adhidaivadishu: in the gods, etc.; Tat:
His; Dharma: attributes; Vyapadesat: because of the statement.
Na cha smartamataddharmabhilapat I.2.19 (50)
And (the Internal Ruler is) not that which is taught in the
Sankhya Smriti (viz., Pradhana) because qualities contrary to
its nature are mentioned (here).
Na: neither; Cha: also, and; Smartam: that which is taught in
(Sankhya) Smriti; Ataddharmabhilapat: because qualities contrary
to its nature are mentioned.
Sariraschobhaye’pi hi bhedenainamadhiyate I.2.20 (51)
And the individual soul (is not the Internal Ruler) for both also
(i.e. both recensions viz., the Kanva and Madhyandina Sakhas
of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad) speak of it as different
(from the Internal Ruler.)
Sarirah: the embodied, the individual soul; Cha: also, and; (Na: not);
Ubhaye: the both namely the recentions Kanva and Madhyandinas;
Api: even, also; Hi: because; Bhedena: by way of difference; Enam:
this, the Jiva; Adhiyate: read, speak of, indicate.
Adrisyatvadigunako dharmokteh I.2.21 (52)
The possessor of qualities like indivisibility etc., (is Brahman)
on account of the declaration of Its attributes.
Adrisyatva: invisibility; Adi: and the rest, beginning with; Gunakah:
one who possesses the quality (Adrisyatvadigunakah: possessor of
qualities like invisibility); Dharmokteh: because of the mention of
Viseshanabhedavyapadesabhyam cha netarau I.2.22 (53)
The other two (viz. the individual soul and the Pradhana) are
not (the source of all beings) for distinctive attributes and
differences are stated.
Viseshanabhedavyapadesabhyam: on account of the mention of
distinctive attributes and differences; Cha: and; Na: not; Itarau: the
other two.
Rupopanyasaccha I-2-23 (54)
And on account of its form being mentioned (the passage
under discussion refers to Brahman).
Rupa: form; Upanyasat: because of the mention; Cha: and.
Vaisvanarah sadharanasabdaviseshat I.2.24 (55)
Vaisvanara (is Brahman) on account of the distinction
qualifying the common terms (“Vaisvanara” and “Self”).
Vaisvanarah: Vaisvanara; Sadharana sabda: common word;
Viseshat: because of the distinction.
Smaryamanamanumanam syaditi I.2.25 (56)
Because that (cosmic form of the Supreme Lord) which is
described in the Smriti is an indicatory mark or inference (from
which we infer the meaning of this Sruti text under
Smaryamanam: mentioned in the Smriti; Anumanam: indicatory
mark, inference; Syat: may be; Iti: because thus.
Sabdadibhyo’ntahpratisthanaccha neti chet na tatha
drishtyupadesat asambhavat purushamapi
chainamadhiyate I.2.26 (57)
If it be said that (Vaisvanara is) not (Brahman) or the Highest
Lord on account of the term (viz., Vaisvanara which has a
different settled meaning viz., gastric fire) etc., and on account
of his abiding within (which is a characteristic of the gastric
fire) (we say) no, because there is the instruction to conceive
(Brahman) as such (as the gastric fire, because it is impossible
for the gastric fire to have the heaven etc., for its head and
other limbs) and also because they (the Vajasaneyins) describe
him (viz. the Vaisvanara) as man (which term cannot apply to
the gastric fire).
Sabdadibhyah: on account of the word; Antah: within;
Pratishthanat: because of abiding; Cha: and; Na: not; Iti chet: if it be
said; Na: not so; Tatha: thus, as such; Drishtyupadesat: on account
of the instructions to conceive it; Asambhavat: because of
impossibility; Purusham: as person; Api: also; Cha: and; Evam:
him; Adhiyate: (they) describe.
Ata eva na devata bhutam cha I.2.27 (58)
For the same reasons (the Vaisvanara) cannot be the deity (fire)
or the element (fire).
Ata eva: for the same reasons; Na: (is) not; Devata: the presiding
deity of fire; Bhutam: the element of fire; Cha: and.
Sakshadapyavirodham Jaiminih I.2.28 (59)
Jaimini (declares that there is) no contradiction even (if by
Vaisvanara) (Brahman is) directly (taken as the object of
Sakshat: directly; Api: also, even; Avirodham: no objection, no
contradiction; Jaiminih: (so says) Jaimini.
Abhivyakterityasmarathyah I.2.29 (60)
On account of the manifestation, so says Aasmarathya.
Abhivyakteh: because of manifestation; Iti: thus, so;
Aasmarathyah: (says) Asmarathya.
Anusmriterbadarih I.2.30 (61)
For the sake of meditation or constant remembrance—so says
the sage Badari.
Anusmriteh: for the sake of meditation or constant remembrance;
Baadarih: (so says) the sage Baadari.
Sampatteriti jaiministatha hi darsayati I.2.31 (62)
Because of imaginary identity the Supreme Lord may be called
Pradesamatra (span long). So says Jaimini because so (the
Sruti) declares.
Sampatteh: because of imaginary identity; Iti: thus, so; Jaimini:
(says) Jaimini; Tatha: in this way; Hi: because; Darsayati: (the Sruti)
Amananti chainamasmin I.2.32 (63)
Moreover they (the Jabalas) teach that this (Supreme Lord is to
be meditated upon) in this (the space between the head and
the chin).
Amananti: (they) speak, teach, recite, declare; Cha: moreover, also,
and; Enam: this; Asmin: in this.
Dyubhvadyayatanam svasabdat I.3.1 (64)
The abode of heaven, earth, etc., (is Brahman) on account of
the term, ‘own’ i.e., ‘Self’.
Dyu: heaven; Bhu: earth; Adi: and the rest; Ayatanam: abode; Sva:
own; Sabdat: from the word (Sva sabdat: on account of the word
Muktopasripyavyapadesat I.3.2 (65)
Because of the declaration (in the scriptures) that that is to be

attained by the liberated.